Insecticide herbicides!

Some Roundup and other "glyphosate-based herbicides" (GBH) can be considered insecticides, as this publication shows:

"A Roundup herbicide (glyphosate-based herbicide HBG) causes high mortality and impairs the development of Chrysoperla carnea larvae. Chrysoperla carnea larvae".

Ecotoxicological testing of herbicides focuses on non-target plants and higher animals, while direct effects on arthropods are only superficially tested on the basis of contact exposure. However, oral exposure, as we show in our case, can be highly relevant for systemic pesticides, such as HBG. More specifically, in cropping systems comprising HBG-tolerant genetically modified crops, these herbicides and their degradation products are present both inside and outside crop plants, and are therefore ingested by crop-associated arthropod fauna. This is demonstrated by the high mortality rate of Chrysoperla carnea larvae.

N Defarge et al. 2023: " A Roundup herbicide causes high mortality and impairs development of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Sci Total Environ. 2023. DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.161158.

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