ï¿½Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide Food and Chemical Toxicology (DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2012.11.007)
Gilles-Eric Sï¿½ralini1, Robin Mesnage1, Nicolas Defarge1, Steeve Gress1, Didier Hennequin3, Emilie Clair1, Manuela Malatesta2, et Joï¿½l Spiroux de Vendï¿½mois1
1.University of Caen, Institute of Biology, EA2608 and CRIIGEN and Network on Risks, MRSH-CNRS, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen Cedex, France
2.University of Verona, Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, 37134 Verona, Italy
3.University of Caen, Network on Risks, MRSH-CNRS, Bd Marï¿½chal Juin, 14032 Caen Cedex, France
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Our recent work (Sï¿½ralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to our- selves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings a the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date.
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